The Science of Serration: Technical Considerations for Making the Best Bread Knife

The Science of Serration: Technical Considerations for Making the Best Bread Knife


Creating the perfect bread knife involves a combination of precise engineering, a deep understanding of both materials and ergonomics, and, perhaps most importantly, an appreciation for how a bread knife performs in a real kitchen. Like many home and professional bakers, we were frustrated with the mostly lousy serrated knives in the market that users have been forced to accept as the norm.

The STEELPORT team is made up of not only knife makers, but also big bread consumers! We understand the pride a baker has in their craft, and the care and skill they put in every loaf of bread they make – likewise, we’ve honed our craft to ensure every slice through your favorite loaf with a STEELPORT bread knife is effortless and precise.

Ceramic disc used for serration

We spent two years (and countless loaves of bread), to develop the best overall bread knife in the market. Like all STEELPORT knives, our bread knife had to meet our “craftsmanship without compromise” standard of iconic design, functional details, and handcrafted locally using US-sourced materials.

Here’s a closer look at the technical considerations that go into making the best bread knife:

Serration Pattern: Cutting Edge Technology
The serration pattern of a bread knife is critical for its effectiveness. Bread – as well as many other baked goods, and even food like BBQ Brisket – poses a unique challenge due to its combination of a hard, crispy crust and a soft interior. To address this, we had to meticulously engineer a serration pattern designed for optimal cutting performance.

bread knife technical drawing

  1. Top of Serrations for Initial Penetration: The peak of the serration is crucial for piercing the crust. It must be sharp and make a concentrated contact in order to break through the hard exterior without crushing it. This involves designing a curved tooth that will concentrate force at specific points, enabling them to break through the hard exterior without tearing or getting stuck in it.
  2. Bottom of Serrations for Smooth Slicing: The bottom of the serration handles the soft dough inside, and should be wider, ensuring a clean cut without tearing or compressing it. This requires a gentler cutting edge that can slice through the tender dough with ease.
  3. Transition: The top and bottom of the serration are important, but the actual transition between the two is critical to achieve the ideal cut – one smooth motion without needing to aggressively saw.

Resulting Serration: To achieve all of these constraints, we determined the “sine wave” serration pattern is most effective. This unique pattern ensures a smooth transition between the top and bottom of each serration, allowing for a smooth cutting motion. No more sawing back and forth; a single, smooth slice is all it takes.

After extensive testing of various lengths – from a very narrow 5mm to wide 10mm – we found that a 7mm peak-to-peak distance provides the optimal balance with consistent performance.

STEELPORT bread knife macro shot

Manufacturing Enablers:
All STEELPORT knives feature industry-leading 65HRC hardness steel for edge retention – including our bread knife, which is unheard of. This unmatched high hardness ensures that the knife remains sharp over extensive use, and the user will not need to resharp their knife as frequently. In testing our Chef Knife, our blades hold their edge typically 3x longer than other premium chef knives on the market – the edge lasts far longer still when comparing our highly efficient serrated knife to any other bread knives available. The addition of our lifetime free sharpening provides full comfort for STEELPORT users knowing their Bread Knife will be an heirloom tool they’ll use their whole life rather than discarding and replacing every few years.

Lifestyle photograph

Custom Water-Cooled Tooling: Crafting the precise serration pattern on such hard steel requires specialized equipment. We employ custom water-cooled tools to prevent overheating and maintain the blade’s structural integrity during grinding. This process ensures each serration is uniform and precise, contributing to the knife’s overall performance.

Water cooled serration machine

Depth and Angle of Serration: The depth of each serration cut is carefully calibrated to ensure it can handle both the crust and crumb effectively. Our team pays attention to each blade and manually takes it through the serrations. This enables the angle of tooth grinding to be optimized to facilitate a smooth cutting motion, reducing resistance and ensuring a clean slice through the bread. These parameters are set by the platen angle and depth limit on our system to help the handcrafted process. Having created the system that made the original serration also enables us to easily re-sharpen the bread knives and meet our life-time warranty commitment.

Product photograph

Ergonomic Design

Beyond the blade edge, the overall design of the knife plays a crucial role in the user experience. Our bread knife features a curved blade, designed to maintain full contact with the bread as you slice, preventing the knife from slipping and ensuring a clean cut all the way through. This curvature also keeps your knuckles safely away from the cutting board, allowing for a more comfortable and controlled slicing motion.

This is at the top of common comfort features of all STEELPORT knives including the contoured one-piece Oregon Maple wood handle, rounded edges, finger groove, and curved bolster.

Burl knife handles

The STEELPORT Difference
At STEELPORT, we follow three simple and powerful pillars: Iconic Design, Functional Details, and Handcrafted Locally with all US-sourced material. We craft heirloom knives that elevate your culinary experience. Our bread knives combine cutting-edge technology with superior materials and ergonomic design to ensure that every slice is perfect.

Whether you’re slicing through a crusty baguette or a tender brisket, our knife delivers precision and ease.